Chinese Calendar of March 2020
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Clash: Zodiac [Snake] , Direction [West]. Clash: Zodiac [Horse] , Direction [South]. The schematic model that eventually was accepted is the Metonic cycle , which equates 19 tropical years to synodic months. In , the Catholic Church corrected the drift of the computistical "equinox" from astronomical observation by establishing the Gregorian calendar , but the Eastern churches have continued to use the Julian calendar.
Thus, although both Eastern and Western Christianity use 21 March as the base date for their calculation of the date of Easter, their conclusions often differ because their definitions of 21 March differ. The Catholic and Protestant denominations thus use an ecclesiastical full moon that occurs four, five or thirty-four days earlier than the eastern one. The earliest and latest possible dates for Easter are 22 March and 25 April,  as those dates are commonly understood in the Gregorian calendar. However, in the Orthodox churches, while those dates are the same, they are reckoned using the Julian calendar; therefore, on the Gregorian calendar as of the 21st century, those dates are 4 April and 8 May.
Easter is the most important Christian feast, and the proper date of its celebration has been the subject of controversy as early as the meeting of Anicetus and Polycarp around According to Eusebius's Church History , quoting Polycrates of Ephesus ,  churches in the Roman Province of Asia "always observed the day when the people put away the leaven ", namely Passover, the 14th of the lunar month of Nisan. The rest of the Christian world at that time, according to Eusebius, held to "the view which still prevails," of fixing Easter on Sunday.
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Eusebius does not say how the Sunday was decided. The chief complaint was that the Jewish practice sometimes set the 14th of Nisan before the spring equinox.
This is implied by Dionysius, Bishop of Alexandria , in the mid-3rd century, who stated that "at no time other than the spring equinox is it legitimate to celebrate Easter" Eusebius, Church History 7. And it was explicitly stated by Peter, bishop of Alexandria that "the men of the present day now celebrate [Passover] before the [spring] equinox Jews in one city might have a method for reckoning the Week of Unleavened Bread different from that used by the Jews of another city.
But these experiments themselves led to controversy, since some Christians held that the customary practice of holding Easter during the Jewish festival of Unleavened Bread should be continued, even if the Jewish computations were in error from the Christian point of view. The First Council of Nicaea in was primarily concerned with settling the Quartodeciman question the practice of churches in the east of the empire of observing Easter on luna xiv , whichever day of the week it fell on. Probably because those churches which deferred the celebration to the following Sunday couldn't agree which Sunday to observe the Council thought it politic not to promulgate a canon on the matter but to come to an agreement.
The terms of this agreement were set out by Constantine in a letter to those churches which were not represented. It was noted: "When the question relative to the sacred festival of Easter arose it was universally thought that it would be convenient that all should keep the feast on one day By the unanimous judgment of all, it has been decided that the most holy festival of Easter should be everywhere celebrated on one and the same day. Hefele, History of the Councils , Volume 1, pp.
A Council was convened at Sardica in AD which secured agreement for a common date. This soon broke down. As time went on Rome generally deferred to Alexandria in the matter. The Patriarchy of Alexandria celebrated Easter on the Sunday after the 14th day of the moon computed using the Metonic cycle that falls on or after the vernal equinox, which they placed on 21 March.
Where the two systems produced different dates there was generally a compromise so that both churches were able to celebrate on the same day. The process of working out the details generated still further controversies. The method from Alexandria became authoritative. Such a cycle was first proposed by Bishop Anatolius of Laodicea in present-day Syria , c. In Constantinople, several computists were active over the centuries after Anatolius and after the Nicaean Council , but their Easter dates coincided with those of the Alexandrians. Dionysius introduced the Christian Era counting years from the Incarnation of Christ when he published new Easter tables in Dionysius's tables replaced earlier methods used by Rome.creatoranswers.com/modules/irwell/casa-manolo-o-burgo.php
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The earliest known Roman tables were devised in by Hippolytus of Rome based on eight-year cycles. In the British Isles, Dionysius's and Victorius's tables conflicted with their traditional tables. As a result of the Irish Synod of Magh-Lene in , the southern Irish began to use the Dionysian tables,  and the northern English Synod of Whitby in adopted the Dionysian tables.
Nevertheless, Bede tried to explain how the computistic moon could be two days later than the natural moon. The Dionysian reckoning was fully described by Bede in The Gregorian Easter has been used since by the Roman Catholic Church and was adopted by most Protestant churches between and German Protestant states used an astronomical Easter between and , based on the Rudolphine Tables of Johannes Kepler , which were in turn based on astronomical positions of the Sun and Moon observed by Tycho Brahe at his Uraniborg observatory on the island of Ven , while Sweden used it from to Germany's astronomical Easter was one week before the Gregorian Easter in and The first was proposed as part of the Revised Julian calendar at a Synod in Constantinople in and the second was proposed by a World Council of Churches Consulation in Aleppo in The version would have placed the astronomical Easter one month before the Gregorian Easter in , , and , but one week after it in , , and The Easter cycle groups days into lunar months, which are either 29 or 30 days long.
There is an exception. The month ending in March normally has thirty days, but if 29 February of a leap year falls within it, it contains As these groups are based on the lunar cycle , over the long term the average month in the lunar calendar is a very good approximation of the synodic month , which is The lunar year is about 11 days shorter than the calendar year, which is either or days long. Whenever the epact reaches or exceeds 30, an extra intercalary month or embolismic month of 30 days must be inserted into the lunar calendar: then 30 must be subtracted from the epact.
The Rev. Wheatly  provides the detail:. Thus the lunar month took the name of the Julian month in which it ended. The nineteen-year Metonic cycle assumes that 19 tropical years are as long as synodic months. So after 19 years the lunations should fall the same way in the solar years, and the epacts should repeat. So after 19 years, the epact must be corrected by one day for the cycle to repeat.
This is the so-called saltus lunae "leap of the moon". The Julian calendar handles it by reducing the length of the lunar month that begins on 1 July in the last year of the cycle to 29 days. This makes three successive day months. The extra months commenced on 3 December year 2 , 2 September year 5 , 6 March year 8 , 4 December year 10 , 2 November year 13 , 2 August year 16 , and 5 March year That is, the remainder of the year number Y in the Christian era when divided by 19, plus one.
The paschal or Easter-month is the first one in the year to have its fourteenth day its formal full moon on or after 21 March. Easter is the Sunday after its 14th day or, saying the same thing, the Sunday within its third week. The paschal lunar month always begins on a date in the day period from 8 March to 5 April inclusive. Its fourteenth day, therefore, always falls on a date between 21 March and 18 April inclusive, and the following Sunday then necessarily falls on a date in the range 22 March to 25 April inclusive. In the solar calendar Easter is called a moveable feast since its date varies within a day range.
But in the lunar calendar, Easter is always the third Sunday in the paschal lunar month, and is no more "moveable" than any holiday that is fixed to a particular day of the week and week within a month. As reforming the computus was the primary motivation for the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in , a corresponding computus methodology was introduced alongside the calendar.
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Easter Sunday is the Sunday following the paschal full moon date. The paschal full moon date is the ecclesiastical full moon date on or after 21 March.
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The Gregorian method derives paschal full moon dates by determining the epact for each year. Theoretically a lunar month epact 0 begins with the new moon, and the crescent moon is first visible on the first day of the month epact 1.
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Historically the paschal full moon date for a year was found from its sequence number in the Metonic cycle, called the golden number , which cycle repeats the lunar phase 1 January every 19 years. The above table is valid from to inclusive. From the table, paschal full moon for golden number 6 is 18 April. From week table 18 April is Sunday. Easter Sunday is the following Sunday, 25 April. The epacts are used to find the dates of the new moon in the following way: Write down a table of all days of the year the leap day is ignored.
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However, in every second such period count only 29 days and label the date with xxv 25 also with xxiv Treat the 13th period last eleven days as long, therefore, and assign the labels "xxv" and "xxiv" to sequential dates 26 and 27 December respectively. Finally, in addition, add the label "25" to the dates that have "xxv" in the day periods; but in day periods which have "xxiv" together with "xxv" add the label "25" to the date with "xxvi". The distribution of the lengths of the months and the length of the epact cycles is such that each civil calendar month starts and ends with the same epact label, except for February and for the epact labels "xxv" and "25" in July and August.
This table is called the calendarium. The ecclesiastical new moons for any year are those dates when the epact for the year is entered. If the epact for the year is for instance 27, then there is an ecclesiastical new moon on every date in that year that has the epact label "xxvii" Also label all the dates in the table with letters "A" to "G", starting from 1 January, and repeat to the end of the year.
If, for instance, the first Sunday of the year is on 5 January, which has letter "E", then every date with the letter "E" is a Sunday that year. Then "E" is called the dominical letter for that year from Latin: dies domini , day of the Lord. The dominical letter cycles backward one position every year.